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Meeting at Middle Ground: American Quaker Women’s Two Palestinian Encounters

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 10, 111 - 141, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.34230/fiad.1004769

Öz

In the late nineteenth century the Palestinian town of Ramallah began receiving American missionary women who embodied their middle-class ideology of womanhood and ventured to discourse on Arab women and culture. Their conviction of the American woman as the model for other “unfortunate” women prevented these missionaries from integrating in the Palestinian cultural context. Consequently, this Americentric belief led them to construct overwhelmingly negative views of Palestinian women as oppressed, living in ignorance and degraded conditions, and of Arab culture as backward and inept. However, American women missionaries after World War I grew in their cultural and linguistic understanding of Arab culture. This change in perspective came as a result of numerous social and cultural developments in Palestine and the United States that prepared these women to establish an accommodative middle ground between them and the Palestinians, thus modifying their previous perceptions. Among these developments were the increased secularization of the Quakers’ curriculum, more cultural and linguistic training of American teachers, the significance of Palestine as the “Holy land” in missionary imagination, and most importantly the emergence of the strategy of cooperation and devolution among the different Protestant missions in Syria and Palestine after World War I.

Kaynakça

  • ---------“A Story,” Ramallah Messenger 7 (1910).
  • “Religious life in our Mission Field,” Excerpts from the Minutes and Proceedings of the Yearly Meeting of Friends (Richmond, Indiana, AFBFM, 1948).
  • Abraheem Nyruz, Ramallah, Goghraphia, Tarikh, Hadara/ Ramallah: Geography, History, Civilization (Ramallah, Shurouq, 2004).
  • Aida Audi, personal interview, July 28, 2006.
  • Alice Jones, “letter to the American Friends,” Ramallah Messenger 4 (1907).
  • Anisa Ma‘luf, Mu’asasat al-Asdeqa’al-American fi Falasteen men Sanat 1869-1939/ The Society of the American Friends in Palestine, from year 1869-1939 (Egypt: the Modern Press, 1939).
  • Anthony o’Mahony, “the Christian Communities of Jerusalem and the Holy land: a Historical and Political Survey,” in The Christian Communities of Jerusalem and the Holy Land: Studies in History, Religion and Politics (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2003).
  • Beshara B. Doumani, “Rediscovering Ottoman Palestine: Writing into History,” Journal of Palestine Studies 21 (1992).
  • Caroline Atwater Mason, World Missions and World Peace: A Study of Christ’s Conquest (West Medford, Mass: the Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 1916).
  • Christina H. Jones, American Friends in World Missions, 8-10; Rufus Matthew Jones, Eli and Sybil Jones: their life and work (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1889).
  • Christina H. Jones, Friends in Palestine (Richmond indiana: Friends United Press, 1981). Dana l. Robert, American Women in Mission: A Social History of Their Thought and Practice (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1996).
  • Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Phaidon Press, 1992). Elihu Grant, The People of Palestine (Oregon: Wipf and Stock, 1921).
  • Ellen Clare Miller, Eastern Sketches: Notes of Scenery, Schools, and Tent Life in Syria and Palestine (Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Company, 1871).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, The Nation and its “New” Women: The Palestinian Women’s Movement 1920-1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, “Our Muslim Sisters: Women in Greater Syria in the Eyes of American Protestant Missionary Women,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 9 (1998).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, “The impact of American Protestant Mission in Lebanon on the Construction of Female Identity, 1860-1950,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 13 (2002).
  • Etta H. Johnston, “Eli and Sybil Jones Mission,” Report of the missionary work of Friends in the “Land of the Bible.”(Lynn, Mass: t.P. Nichols, 1892).
  • Frances Cogan, All American Girl: The Ideal of Real Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth Century America (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989).
  • Jamal Adawi, “The Activities of the American Quakers in Palestine, 1869-1948” (Ph.D. diss., the University of Haifa, 2001).
  • Kamal Salibi and Yusuf K. Khoury, ed., The Missionary Herald: Reports from Ottoman Syria 1847-1860, vol. 3 (Amman, Jordan: Royal institute for inter-Faith Studies, 1995).
  • L. A. Flemming, “New Models, New Roles: U. S. Presbyterian Women Missionaries and Social Change in North India, 1870-1910,” in Women’s Work or Women Missionaries and Social Change in Asia, ed. L. A. Flemming (Colorado: Westview Press, 1989).
  • Lester Groves Pittman, “Zion as Place and Past, an American Myth: ottoman Palestine in the American Mind Perceived through Protestant Consciousness and Experience,” (Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1984).
  • Lev Wallace, Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880).
  • Lois Harned Jordan, Ramallah Teacher: The Life of Mildred White, Quaker Missionary (Richmond, Indiana: Print Press, 1995).
  • Lynn Dumenil, The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s (New York: Hill and Wang, 1995).
  • Marshal letter to her family, (November 4, 1928). Joy Hilden Personal Collection.
  • Mary Minnick Personal Report to the AFBFM, Part of Mary Minnick Scrapbook, Lily library, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana.
  • Mustafa Murad Dabbagh, Biladuna Filasteen: Fi Dyar Beit Al-Muqdas, vol. 8 (Beirut: Dar al-talyah lltybaha wa alNashr, 1974).
  • Nagat el-Sanabary, “Women and the Nursing Profession in Saudi Arabia,” in Arab Women between Defiance and Restraint. ed., Suha Sabbagh (New York: olive Branch Press, 1996).
  • Najla Cook, personal interview, July 27, 2006;
  • Nancy l. Stockdale, “Gender and Colonialism in Palestine 1800- 1984: Encounters among English Arab and Jewish Women,” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2000).
  • Nancy Parker McDowell, Notes from Ramallah, 1939 (Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 2002).
  • Nancy Parker McDowell, Notes from Ramallah, 1939 (Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 2002).
  • Naseeb Shaheen, A Pictorial History of Ramallah (Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing, 1992).
  • Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860-1915 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944).
  • Richard White in The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the GreatLakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • Robert C. Bannister, Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979).
  • Robert t. Handy. The Holy Land in the American Protestant Life 1800- 1948: A Documentary History, (New York: Arno Press, 1981).
  • Ruth Murray, Friends Mission at Ramallah, Palestine (Friends School, Ramallah, Palestine, 1890).
  • Ruth S. Murray, “Palestine,” Friends Missionary Advocate 7 (1891).
  • Samir Khalaf, Cultural Resistance: Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East (London: Saqi Books, 2001).
  • The United Missionary Council of Syria and Palestine, Eight Year, Proceedings of the Joint Meeting at Beirut (Beirut: American Press, May, 2-5, 1927).
  • The Untempered Wind: Forty Years in Palestine (London: Longman Group, 1975).
  • Yusif Jerjus Qudura, Ramallah History, 238-239; Emile Sahliyeh, In Search of Leadership: West Bank Politics Since 1967 (Washington D.C.: the Brookings institution, 1988).

Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 10, 111 - 141, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.34230/fiad.1004769

Öz

19. yüzyılın sonlarında Filistin’in Ramallah kasabası, kendilerini “orta sınıf kadınların kadınlık ideolojisi” ile donatmış olup, Arap kadınları ve bu kadınların sahip oldukları kültür hakkında fikir beyan etmeye cesaret eden Amerikalı kadın Quaker misyonerlerin ziyaretlerine sahne olmaya başlamıştı. Bu kadın misyonerlerin zihninde sabit bir şekilde yer edinmiş olan “Amerikalı kadınların dünyanın diğer” kadınlarına özellikle de “’talihsiz’ olanlarına modern ve çağdaş bir model olduğu” yönündeki fikre, kati surette bağlı olmaları, kadın Quaker misyonerlerin, Filistin’in kültür yapısına bütünleşmelerine engel oldu. Sonuç olarak, kadın misyonerlerin sahip oldukları bu Amerikancı düşünce yapısı, Filistinli kadınları misyonerlerin gözünde “ezilmiş, beceriksiz, cehalet koşulları içerisinde yaşayan, geri kalmış ve Arap kültürüne hapsolmuş” bir insan olarak görülmesine zemin hazırlamıştı. Ancak, Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonrasında kadın Quaker misyonerler, Arap coğrafyasındaki mesaileri sırasında Arap kültürüne ve Arap dilinin lingüstik özelliklerine karşı duydukları anlayış önemli oranda olumlu yönde gelişmişti.

Kaynakça

  • ---------“A Story,” Ramallah Messenger 7 (1910).
  • “Religious life in our Mission Field,” Excerpts from the Minutes and Proceedings of the Yearly Meeting of Friends (Richmond, Indiana, AFBFM, 1948).
  • Abraheem Nyruz, Ramallah, Goghraphia, Tarikh, Hadara/ Ramallah: Geography, History, Civilization (Ramallah, Shurouq, 2004).
  • Aida Audi, personal interview, July 28, 2006.
  • Alice Jones, “letter to the American Friends,” Ramallah Messenger 4 (1907).
  • Anisa Ma‘luf, Mu’asasat al-Asdeqa’al-American fi Falasteen men Sanat 1869-1939/ The Society of the American Friends in Palestine, from year 1869-1939 (Egypt: the Modern Press, 1939).
  • Anthony o’Mahony, “the Christian Communities of Jerusalem and the Holy land: a Historical and Political Survey,” in The Christian Communities of Jerusalem and the Holy Land: Studies in History, Religion and Politics (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2003).
  • Beshara B. Doumani, “Rediscovering Ottoman Palestine: Writing into History,” Journal of Palestine Studies 21 (1992).
  • Caroline Atwater Mason, World Missions and World Peace: A Study of Christ’s Conquest (West Medford, Mass: the Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 1916).
  • Christina H. Jones, American Friends in World Missions, 8-10; Rufus Matthew Jones, Eli and Sybil Jones: their life and work (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1889).
  • Christina H. Jones, Friends in Palestine (Richmond indiana: Friends United Press, 1981). Dana l. Robert, American Women in Mission: A Social History of Their Thought and Practice (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1996).
  • Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Phaidon Press, 1992). Elihu Grant, The People of Palestine (Oregon: Wipf and Stock, 1921).
  • Ellen Clare Miller, Eastern Sketches: Notes of Scenery, Schools, and Tent Life in Syria and Palestine (Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Company, 1871).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, The Nation and its “New” Women: The Palestinian Women’s Movement 1920-1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, “Our Muslim Sisters: Women in Greater Syria in the Eyes of American Protestant Missionary Women,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 9 (1998).
  • Ellen Fleischmann, “The impact of American Protestant Mission in Lebanon on the Construction of Female Identity, 1860-1950,” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 13 (2002).
  • Etta H. Johnston, “Eli and Sybil Jones Mission,” Report of the missionary work of Friends in the “Land of the Bible.”(Lynn, Mass: t.P. Nichols, 1892).
  • Frances Cogan, All American Girl: The Ideal of Real Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth Century America (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989).
  • Jamal Adawi, “The Activities of the American Quakers in Palestine, 1869-1948” (Ph.D. diss., the University of Haifa, 2001).
  • Kamal Salibi and Yusuf K. Khoury, ed., The Missionary Herald: Reports from Ottoman Syria 1847-1860, vol. 3 (Amman, Jordan: Royal institute for inter-Faith Studies, 1995).
  • L. A. Flemming, “New Models, New Roles: U. S. Presbyterian Women Missionaries and Social Change in North India, 1870-1910,” in Women’s Work or Women Missionaries and Social Change in Asia, ed. L. A. Flemming (Colorado: Westview Press, 1989).
  • Lester Groves Pittman, “Zion as Place and Past, an American Myth: ottoman Palestine in the American Mind Perceived through Protestant Consciousness and Experience,” (Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1984).
  • Lev Wallace, Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880).
  • Lois Harned Jordan, Ramallah Teacher: The Life of Mildred White, Quaker Missionary (Richmond, Indiana: Print Press, 1995).
  • Lynn Dumenil, The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s (New York: Hill and Wang, 1995).
  • Marshal letter to her family, (November 4, 1928). Joy Hilden Personal Collection.
  • Mary Minnick Personal Report to the AFBFM, Part of Mary Minnick Scrapbook, Lily library, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana.
  • Mustafa Murad Dabbagh, Biladuna Filasteen: Fi Dyar Beit Al-Muqdas, vol. 8 (Beirut: Dar al-talyah lltybaha wa alNashr, 1974).
  • Nagat el-Sanabary, “Women and the Nursing Profession in Saudi Arabia,” in Arab Women between Defiance and Restraint. ed., Suha Sabbagh (New York: olive Branch Press, 1996).
  • Najla Cook, personal interview, July 27, 2006;
  • Nancy l. Stockdale, “Gender and Colonialism in Palestine 1800- 1984: Encounters among English Arab and Jewish Women,” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2000).
  • Nancy Parker McDowell, Notes from Ramallah, 1939 (Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 2002).
  • Nancy Parker McDowell, Notes from Ramallah, 1939 (Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 2002).
  • Naseeb Shaheen, A Pictorial History of Ramallah (Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing, 1992).
  • Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860-1915 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944).
  • Richard White in The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the GreatLakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • Robert C. Bannister, Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979).
  • Robert t. Handy. The Holy Land in the American Protestant Life 1800- 1948: A Documentary History, (New York: Arno Press, 1981).
  • Ruth Murray, Friends Mission at Ramallah, Palestine (Friends School, Ramallah, Palestine, 1890).
  • Ruth S. Murray, “Palestine,” Friends Missionary Advocate 7 (1891).
  • Samir Khalaf, Cultural Resistance: Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East (London: Saqi Books, 2001).
  • The United Missionary Council of Syria and Palestine, Eight Year, Proceedings of the Joint Meeting at Beirut (Beirut: American Press, May, 2-5, 1927).
  • The Untempered Wind: Forty Years in Palestine (London: Longman Group, 1975).
  • Yusif Jerjus Qudura, Ramallah History, 238-239; Emile Sahliyeh, In Search of Leadership: West Bank Politics Since 1967 (Washington D.C.: the Brookings institution, 1988).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler, Tarih
Bölüm ÇEVİRİ MAKALELERİ
Yazarlar

Enaya Hammad OTHMAN Bu kişi benim
Marquette University Director of Arabic and Cultural Studies Program
Türkiye

Çevirmenler

Celal ÖNEY

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 10

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @Çeviri { fiad1004769, journal = {Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi}, eissn = {2587-1862}, address = {Selçuk Üniversitesi, Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakültesi, Alaeddin Keykubat Kampüsü, 42003, Konya-TÜRKIYE}, publisher = {Muhammed Mustafa KULU}, year = {2021}, number = {10}, pages = {111 - 141}, doi = {10.34230/fiad.1004769}, title = {Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları}, key = {cite}, author = {Othman, Enaya Hammad} }
APA Othman, E. H. (2021). Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları (C. Öney, Çev.) . Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi , (10) , 111-141 . DOI: 10.34230/fiad.1004769
MLA Othman, E. H. "Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları" Çev. Celal Öney . Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi (2021 ): 111-141 <http://www.filistin.org/tr/pub/issue/67826/1004769>
Chicago Othman, E. H. "Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları". Çev., Celal Öney. Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi (2021 ): 111-141
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları AU - Enaya Hammad Othman Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.34230/fiad.1004769 DO - 10.34230/fiad.1004769 T2 - Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 111 EP - 141 VL - IS - 10 SN - -2587-1862 M3 - doi: 10.34230/fiad.1004769 UR - https://doi.org/10.34230/fiad.1004769 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları %A Enaya Hammad Othman %T Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları %D 2021 %J Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi %P -2587-1862 %V %N 10 %R doi: 10.34230/fiad.1004769 %U 10.34230/fiad.1004769
ISNAD Othman, Enaya Hammad . "Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları". Çev. Celal Öney. Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi / 10 (Aralık 2021): 111-141 . https://doi.org/10.34230/fiad.1004769
AMA Othman E. H. Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları. FAD. 2021; (10): 111-141.
Vancouver Othman E. H. Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları. Öney C, Çev. Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; (10): 111-141.
IEEE E. H. Othman , "Ortak Zeminde Buluşma: Amerikan Quaker Kadın Misyonerlerin Filistinli Kadınlar ile Karşılaşmaları", Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi, sayı. 10, ss. 111-141, Ara. 2021, doi:10.34230/fiad.1004769

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